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  1. Cornelissen Walnut Oil

    Cornelissen Walnut Oil

    Starting at: £6.50

    The introduction of Walnut Oil as a pigment binder is contemporaneous with the emergence of Linseed Oil. Their drying properties have been appreciated since the Middle Ages, and throughout history there is evidence of both oils being used alongside each other within the same painting. In fact, until the sixteenth century, it is believed that Walnut Oil was the preferred binding medium among Italian artists. It is made from mature walnut kernals, offering a pale colour and brilliant gloss. For this reason, it is sometimes chosen as a binder for light colours, as it provides a stronger paint film than Poppy Oil, and faster drying times. However, a paint film made from Walnut Oil will tend to be brittle, so it is more suited to a rigid support rather than canvas. 

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  2. Casein Lactic

    Casein Lactic

    Starting at: £18.30

    Casein is a protein derived from dried milk, which has been used in painting since ancient times. It can be combined with Ammonium Carbonate to form an emulsion, which acts as a durable, non-resoluble binder for pigments, producing a matte, fast-drying paint, similar in appearance to egg tempera. We use casein as a binder for our L. Cornelissen & Son Pigment Colour Charts, as it is a medium that clearly showcases the characteristics and behaviour of each pigment in its pure form. Casein paints can be applied in thin layers to watercolour paper, but would require a more rigid support, such as a gesso panel, to be applied thickly, as the comparative inflexibility of the paint layer means that it can be prone to cracking. Subsequent layers of paint should be more diluted to aid adhesion, and impasto effects are not recommended. It is possible to varnish casein paintings using an acrylic or damar varnish to obtain a glossy surface if desired, although this is not a necessary step. Casein can also be used as an ingredient in gesso, and is a suitable binder for fresco secco techniques.

    Some pigments may require a wetting agent in order to fully disperse within the binder, in which case alcohol may be used.

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  3. Burnt Sienna Pigment

    Burnt Sienna Pigment

    Starting at: £4.00

    PBr7

    Burnt Sienna is a natural earth pigment that has been in use since antiquity. Our Burnt Sienna comes from Tuscany, and is produced by calcining Raw Sienna to temperatures of about 450 degrees Celsius. This process creates a rich warm colour and increases transparency. It also offers a good tinting strength, excellent lightfastness, and a fast to medium drying rate in oil. It is stable in all media but, like umber pigments, may be difficult to disperse in acrylic binders. 

    Toxicity B

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  4. Terre Verte Pigment

    Terre Verte Pigment

    Starting at: £4.00

    Terre Verte, sometimes known as Green Earth, is a natural earth pigment derived from clay coloured by iron silicate. As with other natural pigments, impurities can prevent it from fully dispersing in an acrylic binder, although it is a popular pigment in all other mediums. It has been in use since antiquity, providing excellent lightfastness and great transparency, with a low tinting strength. It requires a high volume of oil, and dries slowly to create a soft, flexible paint film. When calcined, Terre Verte becomes Burnt Green Earth.
    Toxicity B Learn More

  5. Raw Sienna Pigment

    Raw Sienna Pigment

    Starting at: £4.00

    PBr7

    Raw Sienna is a natural earth pigment that dates back to antiquity. Our Raw Sienna comes from areas of Tuscany where the earth has been coloured by iron-rich minerals. It provides a good tinting strength, excellent lightfastness, and a fast to medium drying rate in oil. It is stable in all media but, like umber pigments, can be difficult to disperse in an acrylic binder. It is similar in composition to Yellow Ochre, but whereas Yellow Ochre contains a higher proportion of clay, Raw Sienna contains a higher proportion of silica. As a natural material, the exact colour and qualities of the resultant pigments can vary, but generally this difference creates a paler, more opaque Yellow Ochre, and a darker, more transparent Raw Sienna.

    Toxicity: B

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  6. Prussian Blue Pigment

    Prussian Blue Pigment

    Starting at: £5.20

    PB27

    Prussian Blue is a synthetic organic pigment that was discovered by the paint maker Diesbach, apparently by accident, in Germany in the early eighteenth century. For many years, it was used not only as a colour in its own right, but also as a component of the original Hooker's Green. The other ingredient, gamboge, is highly fugitive, which is why many watercolours painted with Hooker's green have taken on a bluish tone with with age.  

    It is a very transparent and heavily staining colour. It dries quite quickly in oil, and can therefore wrinkly if applied too quickly. It is suitable for use in oils, watercolour, and egg tempera. However, it shouldn't be used in conjunction with alkali substances, such as Lead White or Calcium Carbonate as it can turn brown, so it isn't suitable for fresco. For the same reason, it isn't used with acrylic resin binders due to their alkaline nature, so most paint manufacturers will replace Prussian Blue with a mixture of Phthalo Blue and black in their acrylic ranges. It requires a wetting agent to fully disperse into a binder.

    Toxicity: B

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  7. Burnt Green Earth Pigment

    Burnt Green Earth Pigment

    Starting at: £8.00

    PG23 Burnt Green Earth is a semi-transparent pigment that is stable in all media, although it may be difficult to incorporate into an acrylic binder. A calcined form of Green Earth, it has a low tinting strength, long drying time, and is very lightfast. Toxicity: B Limeproof Learn More

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